Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p.  78. Steen, Harold K. 1965. Variation in vegetation following slash fires. Elderberry Syrup is a natural blend of organic elderberry, Manuka honey, ginger and thyme. Pap. PNW-29. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 49 p.  47. Morris, William G. 1970. Effects of slash burning in overmature stands of the Douglas-fir region. American Journal of Botany. 57(3): 239-244.  56. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Triticum vulgare, Wheat; Oryza sativa, Rice, Solanum tuberosum, Potato; Canna edulis; Maranta arundicanea; Curcuma leucorrhiza. 43. Hordeum distichum, Barley; Maltum, Malt. Geraniaceae. — Geranium family.Herbs with opposite or alternate leaves, usually stipulate, simple or compounds.
Cacteae. — Cactus Family.363. Cactus grandiflorus, Night-blooming Cereus. 364. (Anhalonium lewini. News from the Forest Service. R1-1155:081674. Missoula, MT: [pages unknown].  88. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.—alphabetical listing. Fire also scarifies the hard seed coat and stimulates germination of buried seeds [26,75,94]. Buried seeds respond to fire very quickly. In northern Idaho elderberry seedlings established the first growing season after the fire . There were no new seedlings after that year. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 546 p.  49. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Res. Pap. INT-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.  30. Isaac, Leo A. 1940. Vegetative succession following logging in the Douglas-fir region with special reference to fire.
Hamamelidaceae. — Witchhazel family. — Synopsis.Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple leaves and deciduous stipules. The challenge of producing native plants for the Intermountain area: Proceedings, Intermountain Nurseryman’s Association conference; 1983 August 8-11; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Proceedings—pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Oleaceae. — Olive family.Trees or shrubs with simple leavesillustrated by the olive, the ash, the lilac, and the privet. Caprifoliaceae. — Honeysuckle family. — Synopsis.539. Sambucus canadensis, Elder. 540. Viburnum opulus, Cramp bark, Highbush Cranberry. 541. Viburnum prunifolium, Viburnum lentago, Black haw. 542. (Triosteum perfoliatum, Fever root, Bastard ipecac.